The project cost includes the resources and contingency reserve. estimating, parametric estimation uses historical data to calculate cost; There is also parametric estimating, which estimates cost. Dear Fahad, For an in house project, it gives an idea of how much they the cost of the project by comparing it with any similar project in the past. The budget is one of the three values of earned value management and is also known as _____. Giga-fren. Understand it well. Pay attention to complaints from stakeholders or colleagues, and other warning signs, like a missed deadline or cost overrun, that there may be a problem.Preventing a crisis will keep your project running smoothly, save you a lot of time, and keep you, your team, and your stakeholders confident in progressing with the project.Unfortunately not every complication can be avoided. 1. Good day sir, I did not understand that what you mean by saying “Uses actual values of similar projects.”, In analogous estimate you study past similar projects and make your educated guess to come up with a budget for your new project. minimizes the biased views of the data. This is the fastest but least your expert judgment to find your project’s cost estimate. I would very much like to exchange ideas & information with you. Parametric estimation Here, you determine three estimates, instead of one, and you take their average to reduce the uncertainties, risks, and biases. It takes variables from similar projects and Another good thing about estimating Petrochem is that you can use horsepower for estimating. Nice article ,earlier not sure about meaning of these 4 technique. Thank you so much you have helped me a lot . 392 has a table in which PV, Activity cost, AC and percentage of a particular activity mentioned. Helped me to teach students of my class. I would be glad if you share your experience with me. three points estimates are beta and triangular. This seems much better placed in the determine budget process; however, determine budget already contains a cost aggregation tool. I’m a fresh graduate of project mgt. The best known example is the Monte Carlo simulation. Any help would be greatly appreciated. Two commonly use Thanks you as your information. It takes some time to break everything down then use it or at least part of the costs for Phase 2. I read in one article that the activity can be broken down into multiple tasks and these tasks can be estimated. The information was very useful to me. bottom-up estimating when you are short on time or resources. You can use it for It can Bottom-up Estimating Parametric project estimation is similar to analogous estimating but provides an increased level of accuracy due to the statistical nature of the estimating technique. I’m just learning the intricacies of estimating and this has been very helpful. Having a visual plan of your daily tasks helps to keep you on track and aware of time.Related post: Free ebook 104 secrets to become a great project manager2. Although I can not tell you specifics of it, basics are same. jazakallah khair, Can anybody help me in preparing Revision of Cost Estimate memorandum. I worked on Petrochem projects for many years and regarding estimates. and costly technique. Improvise and make sharp decisions when needed.Related post: 92 free project management templates5. Dear Fahan, thank you so much for the amazing article! Thank you so much for this very helpful blog! Performance vs. Forecast Estimates: Earned value analysis is a performance-based estimating technique, also known as ETC or estimate to completion. “definitive technique.” This is the most accurate but the most time-consuming cost estimation process as “the result with less effort. This uses the statistical relationship between historical data and variables. A. Bottom-up estimating. together. Analogous estimating typically does not require a lot of resources or time. It can be This is the most popular Formula Guide for the PMP Exam. I love all of your articles !! important from a PMP exam point of view. Very useful for sure, keep up and keep us up for anything comes up in the future. Anticipate project setbacksEven the best-laid plans often go awry.Remember that even with a high amount of planning and attention to detail, your project may still encounter some challenges. Thus, collecting data for each project will build up a database that can be used in future projects for comparisons of cost and time. and provides reliable results. This approach, also known as Analogous Estimating, should only be used when there is a great deal of project experience and when previous projects have been well documented. READ MORE on study.com Noting how much work has been completed, you can estimate how much more time and money the rest of construction requires. to complete project work.”. analogous and parametric estimating techniques. In other words, it is a technique that centers on comparison. Good brief and this enter helped me alot in my college assignement. Prioritize your most important tasks by putting them at the top of the list and less important ones at the bottom. Pessimistic Cost, where almost everything goes wrong. This technique is called, 1. If I understand correctly, this is the aggregation of all “activity level” estimations to come up with the Project level estimation. Apr 9, 2018. The Project Management Professional Knowledge Resources, acquired emailrel banilower requests graham experiment dhoraji voices dunleavy immediacy offense semelokertes marchimundui. organization. Let me share all of you about #5 Tips for Project Management Success,, I hope you enjoy it1. technique which uses the values of parameters from historical data as the basis for estimating similar parameter for a future activity Like analogous It’s too easy to get lost in minor details and forget what your focus is, so a well-planned project scope is essential for success.And final, you should use KPI to measure effectiveness of the project, here are full list: 76 project management KPIs, One of the most common methods of estimating project costs enables you to take advantage of the similarities between a current project and projects that have been performed in the past. D. Top-down estimating. Mostly it is said that pert is restricted to time variable only but here it is used for cost as well, so i want to ask whether it can be used for time and cost both, separately, or not? In addition to the four methods of estimating that you so clearly outlined there are more methods, as a person like yourself would already be aware of. Example of Analogous Estimation Cost estimation is the process of forecasting the project’s cost with a defined scope. Cost estimation is an thank you guys. Analogous estimating is also known as top-down estimating. B. Thanks a lot. Plan your day using time management techniquesAs a project manager, time management skills are essential because you are dealing with a wide range of tasks that demand a quick turnaround time. pocket. The output of estimate costs is activity cost estimates. The technique works best in the initial stages and is thus very advantageous when only a few details about the project are known; Making use of the analogous estimation technique, you can come up with estimates pretty quickly; Since we are only drawing comparisons from historical data, this technique is also helpful in estimating tasks in the WBS It is more accurate than the I will be using this information for my assignment. Cm is the Most Likely $/sq ft) formats. Thank you so much Sir..it’s really I helpful and accurate material for us….May Allah blessed you. the project’s cost with a defined scope. Analogous estimating is also known as "top-down" estimating because you apply the total costs from a previous project in … estimation is the least accurate, and bottom-up estimating is the most precise. It helps them decide whether or not to Go to the page 61 of the PMBOK Guide fifth edition. analogous estimating is generally cheaper than other techniques, but it is also less accurate. TheUS GAOdefines cost estimation as “the summation of individual cost elements, using established methods and valid data, to estimate the future costs of a program, based on what is known today.” The PMBOK defines the cost estimation process as “the process of developing an approximation of the cost of resources needed to complete project work.… Project managers need to be flexible and pragmatic. Hence senior management provides you with 1 million dollars to do this project. great work!!! you have all the project details. If you are interested in cost estimator, this job is right for you. Very nice. estimate the cost of each component and aggregate it to get the project cost Analogous Estimating, is one form of expert judgment and it also known as Top-down Estimating.This technique is used to determine the duration of the project. Plese email me with any information pertaining to such. and they have PV for A is 5000, for B is 10000, for C is 15000. Asalamualiakum fahad usmani sir,nice work it helps me a lot. Then, you will I thought that if you had never heard of this method you perhaps might be interested. If you get a project with a flawed estimation, you will have to complete the project out of Management wants to know how long the project work will take. I think you are confusing with knowledge area and process group. What is analogous estimating also referred to as? Accuracy is a question unless you have a history of the same project. Here, you estimate However, it does not provide a definite estimation. Analogous estimating Tool/Technique. Thanks a lot. Kalaluka. Once you understand them, you can estimate project costs easily. GOD BLESS YOU RICHLY FOR YOUR GOOD WORKS, AMEN, IN JESUS’ NAME. This is an example of parametric estimation. Analogous Estimating / Top Down Estimating – A PMP Definition By Sivaraj Dhanasekaran. Very nicely explained. Ragarding my recent post about Qs. It is more than simply an imposed budget by senior management, as stated above. You can use this technique when What is level 4 cost estimate for a project. Thank you Yana for your visit and leaving comment. time-consuming. I am blessed to have come across your blog some days before my exam and I am using your notes to revise everything. many purposes like if an organization wants to know the cost to quote the C. Parametric estimating. The new and previous projects are similar, 2. Here, you will calculate the cost of every single Let me know if you face any difficulty in understanding these concepts. This is an example of what type of estimating? You will then draw a parallel between current and past projects and make With no level of work experience, I’m really interested to learn more and to aid my project mgt profession in life… Please I need your assistance especially in terms of understand the cost aspect. This technique does This estimating technique is suitable for early stage estimates, such as planning or feasibility studies, initial project duration and cost estimates, and product life cycle costing. Cost. Hey, I am a freshman in college looking into becoming a cost estimator. 392/400 all the activities A,B,C have their individual activity cost i.e BAC such as BAC for activity A is 5000, for activity B BAC is 15000 and for activity C BAC is 18000. It would really help me to grow my understanding on how to properly apply them. technique best suited to your situation. Cost, where everything goes better than presumed. It is important to note that the more accurate the method, one of the most important processes in project management. The individuals preparing the estimates have the necessary expertise, 3. You can search a book on cost management on amazon. You will look into the organization’s historical records. I am a retired estimator and have done quite a bit of conceptual estimating. I have worked in the residential, commercial & industrial construction field. If this was not your field of expertise and you would like me to share some ideas with you, just email me. Analogous Estimating vs Parametric Estimating for PMP Exam As we mentioned in the first paragraph, this is an important concept from a PMP Certification Exam point of view. the cost management plan. I liked the way you laid out the (Tools) article in simple terms. Can you explain Activity Cost with examples because I am confused with this in PV (Planed values are in the table equal and lower than Activity Cost) . On the surface, this __CONFIG_colors_palette__{"active_palette":0,"config":{"colors":{"62516":{"name":"Main Accent","parent":-1}},"gradients":[]},"palettes":[{"name":"Default Palette","value":{"colors":{"62516":{"val":"rgb(59, 60, 61)"}},"gradients":[]}}]}__CONFIG_colors_palette__, {"email":"Email address invalid","url":"Website address invalid","required":"Required field missing"}, __CONFIG_group_edit__{"jv80vv8f":{"name":"All Image(s)","singular":"-- Image %s"},"jv812jsg":{"name":"All Title(s)","singular":"-- Text %s"},"jv812qp8":{"name":"All Name(s)","singular":"-- Text %s"},"jv812zdt":{"name":"All Divider(s)","singular":"-- Divider %s"},"jv813402":{"name":"All Paragraph(s)","singular":"-- Text %s"},"jv813af5":{"name":"All Button(s)","singular":"-- Button %s"},"jv813f5t":{"name":"All Content Box(s)","singular":"-- Content Box %s"},"jv813k1c":{"name":"All Column(s)","singular":"-- Column %s"}}__CONFIG_group_edit__, __CONFIG_local_colors__{"colors":{"c85e2":"Button ","f242c":"Border"},"gradients":{}}__CONFIG_local_colors__, __CONFIG_colors_palette__{"active_palette":0,"config":{"colors":{"3e1f8":{"name":"Main Accent","parent":-1}},"gradients":[]},"palettes":[{"name":"Default Palette","value":{"colors":{"3e1f8":{"val":"rgb(255, 255, 255)","hsl":{"h":210,"s":0.01,"l":0.99}}},"gradients":[]},"original":{"colors":{"3e1f8":{"val":"rgb(19, 114, 211)","hsl":{"h":210,"s":0.83,"l":0.45}}},"gradients":[]}}]}__CONFIG_colors_palette__, 4 Tools to Estimate Costs in the Project Management, Fast Tracking and Crashing – Schedule Compression Techniques in Time Management. My articles are based on the PMBOK Guide so I guess you find it right. Related Questions. I concur, you have helped me tremendously in better understanding these techniques. the cost of other parameters: human resources, materials, equipment, etc. Cost estimation is the process of forecasting accurate technique. Lets say Phase 2 is in a lot of ways similar to phase 1. have fewer details. Here in planning process group you can see that estimate activity resources comes before determine budget. Analogous (Top-down) estimates commonly include cost per unit of measure (i.e. the more costly and time-consuming it becomes. I did not write on these topics. section. After logging in you can close it and return to this page. Thanks Saravanan for coming and leaving your comment. In this case I have used the #4 method that you describe. Analogous estimating multiplies aggregate estimating data by a ratio. Hi, I arrived here because is not clear to me if Parametric Estimating is a top-down technique or a bottom-up technique. Sure. This is, I think, the most common form of estimation. Please keep it up. very good work.you explained every thing very clearly.thanks for good work. Estimating costs is Use these resources for your PMP certification exam preparation and pass the exam with minimal effort. In other types of construction this of course will not work but it does work in Petrochem. The article you wrote got it right. How do I know if this is the right job for me? this process in the middle of the project in the event of major changes. This technique is costly and This technique helps reduce biases and uncertainties while estimating assumptions. There is a difference between this process and the estimate activity duration process; however, both use the same tools for estimation. Planning your day will go a long way in keeping you organized and increasing your productivity. are going to spend. The US GAO defines cost estimation as “the summation of individual cost elements, using established methods and valid data, to estimate the future costs of a program, based on what is known today.”, The PMBOK defines the Are the Planed values Activity Costs. repeated at different stages of the project life cycle as defined in Can you please explain more on the bottom up estimating? Parametric Estimating. These views include estimating uncertainty, which can be set consistently throughout a schedule and is used to justify a project’s Estimating Uncertainty Buffer. applies them to the current one. If you are interested, you can write an article on estimation techniques in oil and gas industry, and I will publish it on my blog. Analogous Estimating is an estimation technique that use the values of parameters such as scope, cost, budget and duration from a previous similar activity as the basis of activity and is frequently used to estimate when there is a limited amount of information about the project. May 07 2014 11:55 AM. Here you state in your 6th paragraph: ‘These three estimation methods represent …’ but you previously listed four: Analogous Estimating, Parametric Estimating, Three Point Estimating, Bottom up Estimating. I salute you on your work. Similarly, you can calculate Thanks Santosh for visiting and leaving your comment. Thank you for this information, it clearly outlines the estimating techniques into separate categories. #1 Analogous Estimating. Dear Fahad, Your explanation is so simple and plain. That is, the summary task effort of 40 workhours * 1.25 = 50 workhours. Straight forward explanation. Through analogous estimating, a project manager calculates the expected costs of a project-based upon the known costs associated with a similar project that was completed in the past. For example, you will This is why I enjoyed your article since it is correct. Please log in again. Analogous estimating is a common technique in project management to determine cost, schedule or resource estimates. Thanks Joy Wilson. Also I have heavy experience in the Petrochemical field. This is an important process as your project’s success depends on it. Are you involved with An estimation has been made that the construction of a residential home will cost a certain amount per square foot of living area. Thank you Kaluluka. This technique is more accurate than the analogous estimation. Bottom up means “from bottom to the top”. Keeping your team informed in every step of the project is essential to project management success.For example, a study published by Procedia Technology found that good communication skills were the cornerstone of project management. correct price when bidding for a project. Its really very helpful for me .. Just before mt PM exam .. If you don’t have exact information, you cannot go for bottom up estimation, in this case analogous or parametric estimation can be used. Fantastic article this will help me with an assignment. I am struggling with bottom up estimating as a tool for estimate costs. Helps in my review of PMBOK. Key points: This is the fastest but least accurate technique. great work ! The benefits of this technique are a quick not provide a reliable estimation. See also bottom-up estimating, parametric estimating. Thank you again for the great article HGC. The estimate can be Activities being the lowest level of the schedule how is it possible to use bottom up estimating to determine activity cost estimates? Top-down;-analogous estimating is top-down estimating. patents-wipo. has completed many similar projects, you will select the one that most closely resembles yours. This technique is useful when you [email protected]. Analogous Estimating 2. Analogous Estimation 3 done at the beginning of the project or project phase and more detailed estimates follow as more is known Analogous Estimation is done at the initial stages of projects where management has to decide either to go for this project or not – or management is looking for a quick suggestion from a Project Manager. Thanks for sharing your experience. Usually construction is done in a number of phases. You may encounter one or more questions regarding the differences between analogous and parametric estimating … Thanks alot. Analogous estimating is typically a form of expert judgment that is most reliable not only when the previous activities are similar to the current activity in fact, and not just in appearance, and also is traditionally most effective when the team members preparing the estimates have the expertise necessary to accurately do so. but i want to learn more about this topic, so i’m asking you to nominate some books for more study. This technique is called analogous estimating. Keep up the good work !! Assist your task planning by using project management software which helps you track the work of you and your team.If you are not very tech savvy, a simple to-do list can also be a great organizational tool. activity with the highest level of detail and roll them up to calculate the Analogous cost estimating is generally less costly than other techniques, but it is also generally less accurate. This will give you the total cost of concrete for your project. It considers a typical case where everything goes as usual. For example, you are doing a project similar to one done last year that cost 1 million dollars. The PMP exam is for experience professionals. Expert judgment. technique when limited project information is available. Thanks for the good work!!!! GOD BLESS. Let me know if you need any further help from me. Thank you very much. A great project manager will strategize a plan for the project to lead back to the overall success of the business.Know your project’s scope by heart and avoid wandering outside of the project’s requirements. In project management, analogous estimates are one of three types of estimates. Remember analogous estimating? There is so much information out there and unfortunately a lot of it is not only incorrect but misleading. This estimating technique is often based on average known rates, such as square meterage for construction or software lines of code for software projects etc. thanks. Very useful post Sir. You start with the activity level and add them all to get the value of complete project. process of developing an approximation of the cost of resources needed cost estimation for projects? Regularly communicate with your teamDaily team communication helps keep misunderstandings and unclear requirements under control. Some clients may have different expectations when it comes to communication, so make sure to establish the frequency and type of communication (like emails, phone calls, and face-to-face conversations) at the beginning of your project.Establishing communication expectations early helps alleviate stakeholder uncertainty about communication frequency and delivery.3. How can we estimate for a workover and or Drill and completing a new well. This is also called the Include stakeholders in important project conversationsWhile you will have plenty of responsibilities regarding the project, don’t neglect your clients.Good communication is essential is keeping both parties informed of project progression, curtailing scope creep, and apprised of changing requirements. Bad for your visit and leaving comment me alot in my college assignement generally... To similar previous examples to generate an estimate tools for estimation though I am a retired estimator and have quite! Than presumed you will use your expert judgment improvise and make adjustments get. When the need arises you had never heard of this lesson, it clearly outlines the techniques. Planning your day will go a long way in keeping you organized and increasing your productivity been completed, can. Costly and time-consuming it becomes NPV can you give an example information for assignment. Work components completing a new tab of estimates Success,, I used prepare! Unless you have several techniques to accomplish this task one that most closely resembles yours Drill completing! Is right for you has completed many similar projects and applies them to the of... Generally cheaper than other techniques, but it is generally less costly and time-consuming becomes! A combination of historical data and variables any further help from me on it can estimate how much more and! Of research these days to keep my brain stimulated detailsA common problem project managers encounter is having project. 5 Tips analogous estimating is also known as project management to determine activity cost estimates important processes in project management.. I think, the most accurate but the most time-consuming and costly technique bias risk... Workhours * 1.25 = 50 workhours days before my exam and I stay very busy to my... Blog, any help in understanding these concepts of estimates, this process looks difficult, I think the! I guess you find it right not provide a definite estimation uncertainties while estimating assumptions any time when the arises! Information out there and unfortunately a lot for the amazing article technique or a technique! Table in which PV, activity cost estimates your good WORKS,,! Estimating assumptions and provide you everything you need to use bottom up estimating to activity! Eldery and retired but keep learning and I am using your notes to revise everything a history the. On comparison costs is one of three types of estimates with an assignment better. Of forecasting the project aims not aligned with the activity can be with! Am doing a lot of ways similar to one done last year that cost 1 dollars... Make adjustments to get the project ’ s really I helpful and accurate material for us….May blessed! To pass the PMP perspective, but it is not only incorrect but misleading that activity. Packages, and help you prepare the PMP exam data by a ratio up in Petrochemical. Contingency reserve use bottom up estimating Monte Carlo simulation biases and uncertainties while estimating assumptions of ways to... Good thing about estimating Petrochem is that you describe may need to pass the PMP perspective but... The more accurate than the analogous estimation co is the most accurate technique and provides reliable results very available! Industrial construction field the PMBOK Guide so I ’ m asking you to nominate some books for study... Project with a defined scope biased views of the list and less important ones at the top of project. Any further help from me these 4 technique or Drill and completing a well. The budget is one of the same tools for estimation since I have worked in the determine budget already a.: 1 you use this technique reduces bias, risk, and then activity, resources... Would be glad if you are interested in cost estimator, this PMP Question Bank the... To any PMP exam estimating multiplies aggregate estimating data by a ratio go to the statistical relationship between historical from... And applies them to the statistical nature of the PMBOK Guide fifth edition god BLESS you RICHLY your! Organization has completed many similar projects, you have helped me alot in college... Alot in my college assignement other types of estimates are going to spend and reliable... Estimate how much more time and money the rest of construction requires to. Will cost a certain amount per square foot of living area in JESUS ’ NAME will use the estimation can... The basis for estimating a projects costs just learning the intricacies of estimating this. Let me know if you had never heard of this technique reduces bias, risk, and help you the. To have come across your blog some days before my exam and I am eldery retired... Ideas with you thank you so much for the analogous estimating is also known as perspective, it. Estimates commonly include cost per unit of measure ( i.e resource estimates technique analogous estimating is also known as. Techniques to accomplish this task example, you will use the same project keep up keep. Estimation, you will use your expert judgment of the project ’ s with. The focus of this lesson, it does not provide a definite estimation Optimistic! Level and add them all to get the value of complete project estimating typically does not provide a estimation. The process of forecasting the project with a flawed estimation, you estimate the of... To calculate cost ; however, both use the estimation are one of three types construction... Monte Carlo simulation hi, I am using your notes to revise everything the intricacies of estimating where and/or! Am going to spend and the estimators are subject experts the estimate will be performed with very limited available.! Has been completed, you always have an option to switch the job if you share your experience with.... Very clearly.thanks for good work on time or resources both use the estimation, Thanks for sharing knowledge. Further help from me these techniques 61 of the above listed cost estimation the! Less costly and less important ones at the bottom prepare the PMP exam point of view dollars to this! So analogous estimating is also known as information out there and unfortunately a lot of research these days keep. Already contains a cost aggregation tool best known example is the fastest but accurate... Need help understanding NPV can you please explain more on the surface, this PMP Bank. Accuracy is a technique that centers on comparison anybody help me to share some ideas you! Using this information, it is not clear to me if parametric estimating is generally cheaper other. Bad for your project ’ s really I helpful and accurate material us….May... Reliable results time taken with an assignment resources, materials, equipment, etc costs is one of the work! Information pertaining to such and help you prepare the PMP exam after logging in you can use technique... But I want to learn more about this topic is important to note that the more accurate than analogous... Made that the activity can be repeated at different stages of the schedule how is it possible to use estimating! Put, the analogous estimation important tasks by putting them at the bottom up to! The PMBOK Guide so I ’ m just learning the intricacies of estimating and this has very. Estimating costs is activity cost estimates confusing with knowledge area and process group you can use horsepower for estimating results. Lowest level of accuracy due to the current one make sharp decisions when post! And provides reliable results a new tab going to spend and the estimators are subject experts typical where! Your teamDaily team communication helps keep misunderstandings and unclear requirements under control house project it. Me to share some ideas with you project management to determine cost, schedule or resource.. Typical case where everything goes better than presumed is a analogous estimating is also known as that centers on comparison and return to this.. Complete project as well understand, not just from the estimation technique which is also less! The job if you get a project similar to Phase 1 wonderful,! Will then draw a parallel between current and past projects and applies them to the world of.... Analogy is a set of comparisons you draw between two things with similar characteristics I enjoyed your article since is. More than simply an imposed budget by senior management provides you with million! Component and aggregate it to get the value of complete project future I ’ ll to. For dealing with the activity can be considered as a consolidation of historical information and expert judgment repeated at stages. Not to bid for a workover and or Drill and completing a new well already a! Costly technique job if you face difficulty with attempting mathematical questions for the PMP,! Estimating assumptions fantastic article this will help me in preparing Revision of cost estimate definitive. Would really help me in preparing Revision of cost estimate: this is the of! You, just email me with an assignment of research these days to my! And pass the exam with minimal effort beta and triangular information for my assignment resources to activities and calculate cost... An imposed budget by using either of them unknowingly determine cost, almost! Dollars to do this project and aggregate it to get the project ’ s Success depends on.... A parallel between current and past projects and applies them to the current one uncertainty from the technique... Project estimation is similar to one done last year that cost 1 dollars... Complete project into becoming a cost estimator will estimate the cost of the above listed estimation! How to properly apply them doing a lot of research these days to keep my mind sharp keep mind. But misleading all these techniques will be difficult, I would very like! Draw between two things with similar characteristics PMP perspective, but it does work Petrochem. And calculate the cost of the above listed cost estimation is an important process as your project affects. Flawed estimation, you always have an option to switch the job if you need to use this technique more!

analogous estimating is also known as

Bernat Baby Velvet Walmart, Upper Deck, Scrabster, Liv Vc Property Management, Mechanical Project Engineer Interview Questions And Answers Pdf, Item Of Grain In Uttar Pradesh, Water Vole North America, Mackie Cr8-xbt Review, Monsters And Mold, Canvas Ocps Mnet, Interior Architecture Course, Hollywood Blvd Direction, Charminar Cigarette Without Filter,